mnemosline® is an electronic device mounted on a support in the form of an eye mask which delivers light pulses from LEDs (λ 650 nm, radiant power 7 μW, CE 0051 Class Iia), suitable to stimulate the amplitude and regularity of alpha brain waves. It has been designed mainly for use in problems linked to memory loss, above all in the over 60s population.

In younger populations, besides having an effect on memory, the same use also affects mood and the sleep-wake cycle. Compared to drugs used to produce cognitive improvement, it has no side effects (with exception of epilepsy, see user manual). The treatment must be on-going to prevent progressive memory decline, which is inevitable as we get older. There is only an initial cost, after which all that is required is commitment and determination in order to achieve optimum results, choosing the most suitable time of day to use the device according to your occupations.

OUR WORK

Over a period of 5 years (2002-2007) through the initiative of PROSENECTUTE (an NPO in Vicenza, Italy), more than 1200 subjects of over 50 years of age, from various towns in the Province of Vicenza, were subjected to MEMOTEST. The statistical data collected showed that over 1/3 of these subjects have a considerable degree of memory deficit (score of <8 in the RIVERMEAD behavioural memory test). Six hundred of these subjects also underwent electroencephalogram (EEG) testing, which showed that, in subjects with cognitive deficit, the amplitude of the trace decreased and the alpha component slows down, with a frequency shift from12 to 8 Hz, in the most evident cases.

The MNEMOSLINE® method was used on 200 subjects with cognitive deficit (monitoring them every day in our Memory Centre). This method consists of prolonged light stimulation centred on the frequency of the Alpha waves recorded using EEG. With this it was possible to obtain an improvement of memory and, simultaneously, an increase in the amplitude and regularity of the alpha rhythm (measured through spectral density), clearly evident in 60% of the subjects treated, while a worsening was observed in the control subjects who did not undergo treatment. These results have a mean statistical significance (ANOVA) of p<0.01 and with peaks of p<0.001, in the most responsive population. Moreover, there was also an improvement in mood (significant anti-depressant effect, p<0.01), while there was a marked deterioration in subjects who did not undergo treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

The MNEMOSLINE® device is an eye mask which in place of the lenses contains two red LEDs (λ 650 nanometres, 7 μW of radiant power at 2 cm, pulsed) with flash frequency centred on the frequencies of the brain’s alpha rhythm. Over time, this prolonged stimulation causes an increase in the amplitude and a shift in the frequency of the alpha waves of the person subjected to pulsed radiation.

The results obtained in 200 cases subjected to prolonged treatment with the Mnemosline eye mask are corroborated by data indicated in the literature (Ferro Milone et Al., 2004 and Williams et Al., 2006). This second effect was verified, by us and by others, in an elderly population with memory loss. The physiological method adopted can also be extended to a younger population to potentiate their working memory (through retino-thalamo-cortical pathways), and moreover to improve their mood and regulate their sleep/wake rhythm (through retino-hypothalamic pathways).

MNEMOSLINE® is a new device to protect your memory.

TREATMENT THROUGH INTERMITTENT LIGHT STIMULATION CENTRED ON THE FREQUENCIES OF ALPHA ACTIVITIES.

IT IS ADVISABLE TO START WITH 10 MINUTE SESSIONS, ACCORDING TO “STANDARD” PROGRAMMING. SUBSEQUENTLY, TO OBTAIN APPRECIABLE RESULTS, THE PATIENT SHOULD REPEAT THE SESSION 2-3 TIMES A DAY, FOR AT LEAST 2-6 MONTHS.

THE PATIENT SHOULD ALWAYS KEEP THE EYES CLOSED WHEN UNDER TREATMENT.

MEMORY is an extremely complex function. It comprises short, medium and long terms effects and, as well as involving the whole brain, is also characterized by specialized functions, such as episodic, semantic, visual-spatial, working memory, etc.

This last is prematurely involved in the ageing process. Intermittent Light Stimulation (ILS) delivered by the MNEMOSLINE® is a powerful equipment to stimulate the rehabilitation of working memory.

A brief excursus into the neuropsychopathology of memory allows for better understanding of what happens when we remember or when we forget. Memory essentially consists of the ability of the nervous system to store for short (seconds) or long (years) periods traces of the electrochemical signals sent to the nerve cell: the NEURON. The human brain contains around 100 billion neurons. These are interconnected to form a NEURAL NETWORK. Connections between neurons are mainly formed by SYNAPSES. These connections are not permanent, but change constantly as stimuli are repeated. These changes cause variations in the EFFICACY of each SYNAPSE, as well as the formation of new connections, in other words SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY. Synaptic loss is the process underlying memory loss during the ageing process. This consists of a progressive decline in the efficacy of each synapse, together with a decrease in their total number. The process terminates with programmed nerve cell death: APOPTOSIS. This synaptic loss is in turn characterized by a decrease of the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters at presynaptic level and by a reduction in neurotransmitter receptors at postsynaptic level. However, at neuron membrane level, there is a more rapid decline in local depolarization events. The elementary process, which gives rise to transfer from short term to long term memory, takes place mainly in a region of the brain known as hippocampus (deep in the temporal lobe). This consists in Long Term Potentiation (LTP) of the electrical signal which, among other things, causes synthesis of new proteins at the same synapse.

This process essentially involves a strengthening of the postsynaptic signal determined by the convergence of two signals in short succession (thousandths of second) with different neurotransmitters (for example, acetylcholine and serotonin). This synapse is the memory key. It is also known as HEBB’S SYNAPSE. The BRAIN WAVES in the electroencephalogram show the electrochemical activity of neurons, i.e. the transfer of information from one neuron to another.

The ALPHA WAVES are only a fraction of all the brain waves visible on the electroencephalogram but, at least in humans, they are without doubt the most important, due to their persistence and the extent of their pervasion. They are well organized in adult subjects, awake with eyes closed, i.e. in a state of physical and mental relaxation. They spread throughout the whole of the brain, and can be considered as a factor that controls other types of brain waves, possibly through a process of a prevalently inhibitory kind. In this way, they also regulate the flow of thoughts and memories.

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